Stakeholder Expectations of Future Policy Implementation Compared to Formal Policy Trajectories: Scenarios for Agricultural Food Systems in the Mekong Delta

• We used a transferable, scenario-based methodology which uses a standard quadrant matrix in order to explore both anticipated and idealized future states of the Mekong Delta • Stakeholders identified that agri-business will dominate future agricultural production in the delta but showed a clear concern that sustainability might consequently be undermined despite policy claims of the contrary

Collective influence of household and community capitals on agricultural employment as a measure of rural poverty in the Mahanadi Delta, India

Common-pool resources and private assets do not have the same effect on agricultural livelihoods. A lack of access to human, financial and social capitals at the household level increases the levels of precarious agricultural employment, such as daily-wage agricultural labour. Households located in communities with greater access to collective natural capital are less likely to be agricultural labourers. Proximity to rural centres and access to financial infrastructures increase the likelihood of being a landless agricultural labourer.

Agricultural shocks and drivers of livelihood precariousness across Indian rural communities

• We provide a typology of communities based on their access to common-pool resources • The influence of capitals and climatic shocks on livelihoods is spatially variable • The type of community modifies livelihood opportunities and coping strategies • Climatic shocks drive precarious livelihoods, except in best-connected communities

Spatial associations between household and community livelihood capitals in rural territories

• We advocate for the separation of community capitals from household livelihood capitals to characterise rural livelihoods • We observed spatial variability in access to common-pool resources and private assets affecting livelihoods in rural India • Workforce availability and access to community natural resources increase with remoteness • Access to community natural capital is negatively associated with access to community infrastructures • Households make trade-offs between natural and financial assets to meet their needs and mediate vulnerabilities.